1. Yahweh inscription, c. 1400 BC

This photo displays a reproduction of the oldest known inscription of the name "Yahweh," the personal name of God (cf. Exodus 3). The writing is in hieroglyphs and is dated to c. 1400 BC. The inscription was discovered in the temple built by the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III in Soleb, which is in modern day Sudan. The text refers to a group of wandering followers of Yahweh who are possibly the Israelites; however, this is uncertain at this time.



NOTE: The inscription shown here is not related to the purported inscription from Jebel al-Lawz. Though Jebel al-Lawz may someday prove to be the Biblical Mt. Sinai, the purported inscription from there currently lacks scholarly support.  

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Benny Bonte and http://www.godsnaam.be/

2. Israel outside of the Bible

This engraved slab of granite is more than ten feet tall and was found in 1896 in Western Thebes, Egypt. It contains the oldest* certain reference to “Israel” outside of the Bible, and is referred to as the Merneptah Stela. It was carved c. 1210 BC in hieroglyphs and is currently located in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. (Note: the word "Israel" is the darkened section in the second line from the bottom, which can be seen more clearly by clicking on the photo to enlarge it.)

*The Berlin Pedestal may contain a reference to Israel that is older than the Merneptah Stela.

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Greg Gulbrandsen

3. King David

This inscribed basalt stone contains an ancient reference to the Biblical King David. Being roughly a foot tall, it was written in Aramaic in the mid 9th century BC and is known as the Tel Dan Stela. The text actually refers to the "House of David," meaning his royal family. Found during excavations in the ancient city of Dan in 1993/94, it is now located in the Israel Museum.

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Z.Radovan/www.BibleLandPictures.com

4. King Solomon

In the Biblical passage found in 1 Kings 9:15 it notes that King Solomon constructed the city wall for the town of Gezer.  Archaeologists working at the site have now identified Solomon's wall, and the photo displayed here shows the remains of the gated portion.




PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © BiblePlaces.com

5. Pharaoh Shishak

This wall carving within the Karnak Temple complex in Egypt commemorates Pharaoh Shishak's military exploits, including an invasion into Israel, c. 925 BC. Shishak is referred to in the Bible, and most scholars believe the invasion depicted in the carving is the same event noted in the Bible in 1 Kings 14:25. The carving displays a large image of the god Amun leading a number of captive cities by ropes. The scene is damaged; but, among others, it lists the Israelite city of Megiddo as one of many attacked by the Egyptians. Click "Read more" below to see the sequence of Egyptian pyramid development from the first pyramid to the Great Pyramid.  

PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

6. King Ahab

This limestone monument, known as the Kurkh Monolith, is approximately seven feet high and is now located in the British Museum. Discovered in 1861 in Kurkh, Turkey, it was originally carved in c. 852 BC by the Assyrians. The cuneiform writing on the monument refers to a battle involving King Ahab of Israel, who is also frequently referred to in the Bible (cf. 1 Kings 16-22).





PHOTO RELEASED TO THE PUBLIC DOMAIN: Yuber (Thank you)

7. Moabite Stone

The Moabite Stone, also called the Mesha Stela, is an inscribed black basalt monument written in the Moabite language in c. 835 BC. It stands nearly four feet tall and was found in 1868 in the land of ancient Moab, now modern Jordan. It contains references to Biblical figures such as Israelite King Omri and Moabite King Mesha (cf. 1 and 2 Kings), as well as the covenant name of God, YHWH (cf. Exodus 3). It is now located in the Louvre.
 
 


PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Michael Luddeni

8. Israelite kings

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III was made in c. 827 BC in ancient Assyria. It is about six and a half feet in height and is made of fine grained black limestone. The cuneiform text reads, "Tribute of Jehu, son of Omri...."  Both Jehu and Omri were Israelite kings who are referred to in the Bible (cf. 1 & 2 Kings). A close-up photo showing an Israelite, possibly Jehu, bowing to the king of Assyria can be seen by clicking "Read more" below. The obelisk was found in 1846 in Nimrud and is now in the British Museum.

 

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Al Sandalow

9. King Hazael

This inscribed basalt slab is known as the Stela of Zakkur. It refers to the Aramaic king Hazael who is also referred to in the Bible in such passages as 1 Kings 19:15. The item was discovered in 1903 at Tel Afis in Syria and dates to approximately 800 BC. The artifact is about 24 inches tall and the language is Aramaic. It is now located in the Louvre.
PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © BiblePlaces.com

10. King Jeroboam II

This seal is a bronze cast replica of the original found at Megiddo in c. 1904.  The Hebrew lettering reads, "belonging to Shema, servant of Jeroboam." Scholars believe that the original seal was from King Jeroboam II* who is referred to in such passages as 2 Kings 13:13. The original was made in the 8th century BC of jasper and measured about 1 x 1.5 inches.  Unfortunately, the original is now lost but the replica remains in a private collection.

*Some scholars suggest that the seal comes from Jeroboam I instead of Jeroboam II, but this is not widely accepted.

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION:
© Z.Radovan/www.BibleLandPictures.com 

11. King Ahaz

This clay seal impression from the 8th century BC contains the Hebrew text, "Belonging to Ahaz [son of] Jotham, King of Judah." Ahaz was a Biblical king referred to in the books of 2 Kings and Isaiah. Fingerprints can be seen on the left side of the impression, possibly those of Ahaz himself. The artifact is roughly one-half inch in size and is now in a private collection. Click on "Read more" below to see how a seal such as this, along with a string, were used to secure a papyrus document.
 
NOTE: Though the likelihood of authenticity is very high, the provenance of this item is unknown.
 
PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Z.Radovan/www.BibleLandPictures.com 

12. Sargon II

This brick refers to the Assyrian King Sargon II who reigned from 721 to 705 BC. It is inscribed in cuneiform text and is located in the Oriental Institute Museum at the University of Chicago. The brick was found in the ancient Assyrian city of Khorsabad during excavations that took place from 1929 to 1935. Sargon is also referred to in the Bible in Isaiah 20:1. Click "Read more" below to see a giant lammasu, the winged bull deity from ancient Assyria.

PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

13. Hezekiah's Tunnel (probable)

In the Biblical passage found in 2 Kings 20:20 there is a reference to a "tunnel" built by King Hezekiah in Jerusalem to bring water into the city c. 700 BC.  A tunnel in Jerusalem, likely built by Hezekiah, is still open and visitors can walk through it. It is about one-third of a mile long, and the water is roughly knee deep. Some scholars question if this is the exact tunnel built by Hezekiah; but, in any case an ancient Hebrew inscription was found in the tunnel showing Jewish presence in Jerusalem in antiquity. Click "Read more" below to see a picture of the ancient inscription.


PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Greg Gulbrandsen

14. Sennacherib Prism

This artifact is known as the Sennacherib Prism. It was made in ancient Assyria in c. 700 BC of baked clay and is approximately 15 inches tall. The cuneiform script in the Akkadian language refers to Israelite King Hezekiah and to Assyrian King Sennacherib, both of whom are in the Biblical text (cf. 2 Kings 19:9). In the inscription the Assyrian talks about trapping Hezekiah in Jerusalem like a caged bird. The artifact was purchased from a Baghdad antiquities dealer in c. 1919 and is now in the Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago. It is one of eight such prisms found so far (e.g. Taylor Prism, British Museum).

PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

15. Siege of Lachish

This wall relief carving depicts the siege of Lachish, telling the story from the Assyrian point of view. The carving was created in c. 700 BC and was discovered in the 1850s in the ancient city of Nineveh, Assyria. The full original panel measured sixty-two feet in length and was nearly nine feet tall. The same events are recorded in the Bible in 2 Kings 18-19. The relief now resides in the British Museum.

(NOTE: If you click on the photo and enlarge it, the detail is really quite engaging. The defenders are throwing flaming torches, the attackers have battering rams, etc. In the lower right there are even depictions of victims being impaled.)

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Al Sandalow

16. King Manasseh

This clay prism, known as the Esarhaddon Prism, was made by the Assyrian king Esarhaddon in 673-672 BC. It refers to "Manasseh king of Judah," who is also frequently referred to in the Bible in such passages as 2 Kings 20:21. The prism is written in cuneiform script and was found in the 1920s in the ruins of Nineveh. It is made of clay and is about 13 inches high. It is now located in the British Museum. 



   
PHOTO: © Trustees of the British Museum 

17. Pharaoh Tirhakah

This wall carving was fashioned in the 7th century BC in the Edifice of Tirhakah in the Karnak Temple complex, which is located in modern day Luxor, Egypt. The building is made of sandstone and the carving shows Pharaoh Tirhakah on the left and baboons on the right worshipping the Egyptian god Re. Pharaoh Tirhakah, originally from the Kingdom of Cush,  is referred to in the Bible in both 2 Kings 19:9 and Isaiah 37:9.

PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

18. Esarhaddon

Esarhaddon was an Assyrian king noted in Biblical passages such as 2 Kings 19:37. He erected the monument shown in the picture to commemorate a military victory in Egypt. The dolerite monument is over ten feet high and was made in the 7th century BC. It was found in 1881 in the modern city of Zinjirli, Turkey, and the text is written in the Akkadian language using cuneiform script. Esarhaddon himself is depicted in the carving, which is now located in the Museum of the Ancient Near East, Pergamum Museum, Berlin.


PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Al Sandalow

19. Sheba connected to Israel

This photo displays a bronze inscription recently found in southern Arabia (the land of Sheba) that refers to "the towns of Judah." It indicates that there were trade relations between Israel and the homeland of the Queen of Sheba. The artifact is dated to the end of the 7th century BC, after the time of Solomon, though it shows the plausibility of the contact between Israel and the land of Sheba during Solomon's era as portrayed in such passages as 1 Kings 10. The artifact was likely a memorial inscription displayed on a temple wall, and the text is written in the Sabaean language using the South Arabian alphabet. Click "Read more" below to see a map showing the location of Sheba at the southern end of Arabian peninsula.

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © AndrĂ© Lemaire; ARTWORK ON PHOTO: Greg Gulbrandsen

20. Silver Scrolls

This small scroll is one of the two Silver Scrolls, which contain the oldest known copies of Biblical passages. Written about 600 BC, they were discovered in 1979 in Jerusalem at a place outside the Old City known as Ketef Hinnom. The Hebrew language text on the scrolls is taken from Numbers 6:24-26, which reads, "May Yahweh bless you and keep you; May Yahweh cause his face to shine upon you and grant you peace." The smaller of the two scrolls, which is the one pictured here, is about 1.5" long, and the larger one is about 4" long. Both scrolls are now located in the Israel Museum. Click "Read more" below to see a close-up of the location the Scrolls were discovered.


PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Z.Radovan/www.BibleLandPictures.com 

21. Nebuchadnezzar II

This ceramic brick is inscribed in cuneiform with the name of Nebuchadnezzar II, who is mentioned some 90 times in the Bible (e.g. Ezra 1:7). Ancient kings often used inscribed bricks in their building projects. This one was originally made in c. 604-562 BC and was found in the ruins of ancient Babylon during excavations in 1927. It reads, "Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Guardian of the temples of Esagila and Ezida, Firstborn son of Nabopolasser, king of Babylon." It is now (2011) in The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York on loan from Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin.

PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

22. Nebuchadnezzar II on cylinder

This ceramic cylinder is inscribed in cuneiform script with the name of the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II, who is referred to in the Bible more than any other foreign king (e.g. 2 Kings 24:1). The cylinder enumerates his building activities and was made in c. 604-562 BC. The artifact is 8.38 inches long. It is now (2011) located in The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York on loan from the Yale Babylonian Collection.
PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

23. Babylonian Chronicles

This ancient Babylonian tablet is part of the Babylonian Chronicles, which, among other events, records the capture of Jerusalem by the Babylonians in 597 BC. The event is also recorded in the Bible in 2 Kings 25. The tablet was written in the 6th century BC, and is made of baked clay. It is a little over three inches in height and the writing is in the Akkadian language using cuneiform script. It was discovered in the late 1800s in Babylon and is now located in the British Museum.


PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Al Sandalow

24. Jehoiachin Ration Document

This clay tablet from ancient Babylon describes monthly rations allowed to Jehoiachin, a Jewish king. The Biblical account of King Jehoiachin is found in 2 Kings 25:29-30, which also states that he received a "regular allowance" from the king of Babylon. The tablet was made in c. 595-570 BC, and was discovered in Babylon in c. 1900.  The text is in the Akkadian language using cuneiform script, and the tablet measures roughly 4 x 4 inches. The artifact is now located in the Museum of the Ancient Near East, Pergamum Museum, Berlin. 

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Associates for Biblical Research

25. Babylonian arrowhead

This arrowhead was recently found in Jerusalem in material retrieved from the Temple Mount. It is of the type used by the Babylonian army that destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem in 586 BC. The attack is recorded in the Bible in 2 Kings 24:10.












PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: Zachi Zweig

26. Pharaoh Hophra

The name inscribed in hieroglyphs on this artifact is "Haaibra," the throne name of Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) who is referred to in the Bible in Jeremiah 44:30. The sandstone block was purchased in Cairo in 1919, and is now on display in the Oriental Institute Museum at the University of Chicago.





 
PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

27. Belshazzar from Book of Daniel

This clay cylinder was inscribed in Akkadian cuneiform in the 6th century BC by the Neo-Babylonian King Nabonidus. It refers to his son Belshazzar, who is also referred to in the Bible in Daniel 5 and 8. The cylinder was discovered in the 19th century in Ur and is now in the British Museum. It measures about four inches in length and is one of four such cylinders.

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Marie-Lan Nguyen / Wikimedia Commons

28. Cyrus Cylinder

This artifact, known as the Cyrus Cylinder, was discovered in Babylon in 1879. Using the Akkadian language in cuneiform script, it recounts the exploits of the Persian King Cyrus, who is referred to frequently in the Bible (e.g. Isaiah 40-55). The text contains a description of Cyrus returning captives to their homeland. This is similar to Cyrus' actions with the Jews, though they are not specifically mentioned on this artifact. The cylinder is made of clay and is about nine inches long. The artifact was fashioned in the 6th century BC and now resides in the British Museum. In 2013 it toured 5 cities in the US, and the photo shown here was taken at the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco. The reverse side of the object can be seen by clicking "Read more" below.

PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

29. Darius

This standard weight is from Persepolis in ancient Persia and is inscribed in three languages with text that reads, "I am Darius, Great King..." Darius is also recorded in the Bible as a Persian king in passages such as Ezra 4:5. The stone dates to c. 500 BC and weighs about 10 lbs., 13 oz. It is made of diorite and is now located in the Oriental Institute Museum at the University of Chicago.




PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Daniel Brose

30. Xerxes

This alabaster jar comes from 5th century BC Egypt, and is inscribed with the name of the Persian King Xerxes–sometimes called Ahasuerus–who is referred to in the Bible in such passages as Ezra 4: 6. It is inscribed in both cuneiform and hieroglyphs, and is about ten inches high. It is now located in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.




PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

31. Artaxerxes I

This silver bowl dates to the 5th century BC and comes from ancient Persia. It was used as a wine-drinking vessel, and it comes from the royal house of the Persian ruler Artaxerxes I. It is inscribed with the name of Artaxerxes himself, as well as his father Xerxes and his grandfather Darius. Of interest is the fact that the Biblical figure Nehemiah is listed as a cup-bearer to Artaxerxes in Nehemiah 2:1. Found before 1935,* it is nearly 12 inches in diameter and is one of four such bowls discovered so far. The inscription is in the Old Persian language using cuneiform script, and the bowl is on display in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

*The exact provenance is unknown.

PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

32. Herodotus and the Bible

Both the Bible and the Greek historian Herodotus speak about the same Persian kings: Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes and Artaxerxes. In the brief quotes included here the Biblical text is given first, followed by four passages from Herodotus.

BIBLE -
…during the entire reign of Cyrus king of Persia and down to the reign of Darius king of Persia.  At the beginning of the reign of Xerxes …And in the days of Artaxerxes king of Persia. (Ezra 4:5-7) NIV.

HERODOTUS - …we inquire further about Cyrus and the Persians… (The Histories 1.95).

HERODOTUS - …after giving these orders, Darius summoned into his presence… (The Histories 5.106).

HERODOTUS - …having appointed Xerxes as King of the Persians… (The Histories 7.4).

HERODOTUS - …during the reigns of... Xerxes, son of Darius, and Artaxerxes, son of Xerxes… (The Histories 6.98).

Herodotus quotes taken from:  Herodotus, The Landmark Herodotus: The Histories. Trans. Purvis, Andrea L., Ed. Strassler, Robert. New York: Pantheon, 2007. Print.

33. Dead Sea Scrolls

The Dead Sea Scrolls are the largest collection of ancient Biblical manuscripts ever found. Representing all books of the Hebrew Bible except Esther, they were found in Israel near the settlement of Qumran next to the Dead Sea between 1947 and 1956. In addition to copies of Biblical books, other texts such as Biblical commentaries are also included in the collection. (There is even a treasure map called the Copper Scroll, though no treasure has ever been found.) Originally written primarily in Hebrew* on parchment (animal skin) and on papyrus (a paper-like material) in c. 200 BC to AD 70, they are now for the most part located in the Shrine of the Book, a wing of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.**  The Psalms Scroll is shown above; to see a photo of the Copper Scroll, click "Read more" below. To go to the Dead Sea Scrolls online site click this link: Dead Sea Scrolls online .

*In addition to Hebrew, a smaller percentage are written in Aramaic and Greek.
**Various limited portions exist in different locations. For example, the Copper Scroll is located in the Archaeological Museum in Amman, Jordan.

PHOTO RELEASED TO THE PUBLIC DOMAIN: Israel Antiquities Authority (Thank you).

34. King Herod

The 1st century AD Jewish writer Josephus recorded the ascension of King Herod to the throne of Judea. The Bible also refers to King Herod in such passages as Matthew 2:1, which reads, "...Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod" (NIV).  A quote from Josephus concerning Herod is as follows:

"As soon as Herod was established on the throne, he conferred honors on those in Jerusalem who had supported his cause, and punished the partisans of Antigonus. Converting his valuables into money, he sent large sums to Anthony and his friends."

Quote taken from: Josephus, Josephus the Essential Works. Trans & Ed. by Maier, Paul L. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2007. Print. P.  241.

35. King Herod's wine jug

The inscription on this piece of  a wine jug refers to King Herod who is noted in the Bible as having killed the babies in Bethlehem near the time of Christ's birth.
Click "Read more" below to see the museum placard that accompanies this artifact.
 
PHOTOS USED WITH PERMISSION: © Randall Price

36. Augustus

The first of the three Roman emperors mentioned in the Bible is  Augustus who reigned from 27 BC - AD 14. He is referred to in Luke 2:1 and is a well documented historical figure. The photo here shows a marble bust located in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum, Turkey.







PHOTO © Michael J. Caba

37. Tiberius

The second of the three Roman emperors mentioned in the Bible is Tiberius who reigned from 14-37 AD. He is referred to in Luke 3:1, and his reign is also discussed by other ancient authors (e.g. Tacitus, Suetonius, etc.). The photo here shows a bust located in the Ephesus Museum, Turkey.



PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © BiblePlaces.com 

38. Claudius

The third of the three Roman emperors mentioned in the Bible is Claudius who reigned from 41-54 AD. He is noted in Acts 11:28 and 18:2. Ancient historians such as Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio also wrote about him. The photo here shows a model head located in the Museum of Roman Civilization, Rome.





PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © BiblePlaces.com

39. Caeser's image

In Luke 20:23-25 Jesus requested a coin and then asked the crowd, "Whose image and inscription are on it?” They replied that it was “Caesar’s.” Several types of coins were in circulation at that time that showed an image of Caesar, with the one displayed here being a typical example. It contains the image of Tiberius Caesar who reigned 14-37 AD, the time of the ministry of Christ. The text on the silver platted coin is written in Latin, and the coin itself is now in a private collection. Click on "Read more" below to see the reverse side of the coin.

PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

40. John the Baptist

This quote, from the 1st century AD Jewish writer Josephus, references the execution of John the Baptist, which is also recorded in the Bible (Matthew chapter 14).

"Now, to some of the Jews the destruction of Herod's army seemed to come from God as a...punishment for what he did to John who was called the Baptist. For Herod had executed him..." (Jewish Antiquities).

Quote taken from: Josephus, Josephus the Essential Works. Trans & Ed. by Maier, Paul L. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2007. Print. P.  271.

41. The Temple Mount

View of the Western Wall,* which is part of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Many people from around the world come here to place written prayers into the crevices between the building blocks. The lower portion of the wall displayed in the photo represents part of the Temple complex that was rebuilt by King Herod starting in c. 19 BC. Herod's rebuilt Temple was the one visited by Christ. The Gospels record Christ at the Temple in such passages as John 2:12-25. Click "Read more" below to see an aerial photo of the Temple Mount.

*Sometimes referred to as the "Wailing Wall."
PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

42. Peter's house (probable)

This photo displays the location of a first-century AD house in the village of Capernaum that archaeological evidence indicates was quite likely the home of the Apostle Peter with whom Jesus may have lived (Mark 1 and 2). The miracle during which a paralyzed man was lowered through the roof likely occurred at this location. Excavations were carried out on the site between 1968 and 1998, and it was learned that it was used early in the Christian era as a church and as a place of pilgrimage. Also, inscriptions that refer to Jesus Christ were found. Today the structure is still visible under a larger modern church that was built over it to commemorate the site. To see a photo of this modern church, click  "Read more" below.

PHOTO: Michael J. Caba

43. Pool of Siloam

In 2004 workers digging a sewer line in Jerusalem uncovered this terraced stone pool that was identified by archaeologists as the Pool of Siloam referred to in John's Gospel. This pool is noted in John 9:7 as the place where Jesus sent a blind man to be healed. The approximate date the pool was originally constructed was indicated by coins placed in antiquity into the plaster pool lining. The pool, which is about 225 feet wide, is located near the end of Hezekiah's tunnel (discussed above) and can be seen by visitors to the area.

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © Greg Gulbrandsen

44. Pontius Pilate

This inscribed limestone slab was found in Caesarea Maritima, Israel in 1961. It was originally made in c. 30 AD. It is written in Latin and reads, "Tiberium Pontius Pilate Prefect of Judea." Pontius Pilate is known from the Bible as the one who condemned Jesus to death (Matthew 27).The artifact is about 32 inches in height and is now housed in the Israel Museum. 




PHOTO RELEASED TO THE PUBLIC DOMAIN: BRBurton (Thank you)

45. Mars Hill

View of Mars Hill, also called the "Areopagus," in Athens, Greece. The Bible reads, "Paul then stood up in the meeting of the Areopagus and said: “People of Athens! I see that in every way you are very religious...." (Acts 17:22 NIV). Mars Hill (the Areopagus) is located next to the Acropolis in the center of Athens, and it appears to have originally had a building on it in which the Areopagus council met (the building is now gone). Paul likely gave his speech before the Areopagus council in the building on this hill, or perhaps in another building in which the  council met (e.g. Royal Stoa). Today there is a plaque on the side of the hill, and this plaque contains the text of Paul's speech. The full plaque can be read in modern Greek by clicking "Read more" below and enlarging the photo.

PHOTO: © Michael J. Caba

46. Gallio

The Bible refers to a proconsul in ancient Greece by the name of Gallio (Acts 18). The Greek language inscription shown to the left refers to the same Gallio noted in the Bible. It was written in the 1st century AD and was discovered in Delphi in 1905. It originally consisted of various fragments that were pieced together in 1967. The artifact is now in the Delphi museum, Greece. Click on "Read more" below to see the remains of the Temple of Apollo in Delphi.

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © BiblePlaces.com;
ARTWORK ON PHOTO: Michael J. Caba

47. Ephesian theater

The photo displays a view of the theater in ancient Ephesus, which is now in modern Turkey. In Acts 19:29 reference is made to this theater in which a crowd gathered to protest the ministry of the Apostle Paul. The theater had a seating capacity of approximately 24,000 and can still be visited today. Click "Read more" below to see the late 5th to early 6th century picture of the Apostle Paul in The Grotto of Saint Paul, Ephesus, Turkey.
PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © BiblePlaces.com

48. Artemis of the Ephesians

The Bible records that the people involved in a riot in the city of Ephesus  shouted, “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!” (Acts 19:34 NIV). This photo displays a marble statue of the goddess known as the "Great Artemis." It was discovered in the city and measures over nine feet in height. It was made in the 1st or early 2nd century BC and is now on display in the Ephesus museum. Ephesus was known in the ancient world as a center for the worship of Artemis, and the temple devoted to her in the city was considered to be one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
 
 

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © BiblePlaces.com

49. Erastus (probable connection)

The inscription shown in the photo was discovered in 1924 at the location of ancient Corinth in Greece. The text is in Latin and reads, "Erastus...bore the expense of this pavement." This is probably a reference to the same "Erastus" referred to in Romans 16:23 as a city official. The inscription, with seven inch letters, dates to the 1st century AD. The limestone slab is in its original location in a field at the ruins of ancient Corinth. 

PHOTO USED WITH PERMISSION: © BiblePlaces.com

50. Crucifixion of Christ

The Roman historian Tacitus wrote his book, The Annals of Imperial Rome, in c. 110 AD, roughly a decade after the death of the last apostle, John. Tacitus is one of the earliest non-Christian sources to discuss Jesus and his crucifixion. The quote by Tacitus is shown below, and by clicking "Read more" at the bottom of this post additional quotes about Christ and the early Christians can be seen.
 
Tacitus (Roman historian, c. 110 AD):  “Their originator, Christ, had been  executed in Tiberius’ reign by the governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate”  (Tacitus, The Annals of Imperial Rome. Rev. ed.  Trans. Grant, Michael. New York: Penguin, 1971. Print. P. 365.)

-------------------- Recommended Resources-------------------------

BOOKS:  NIV Archaeological Study Bible
                   Readings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study
                   Readings from the First-Century World: Primary Sources for New Testament Study


WEBSITES / BLOGS:  BiblePlaces.com  
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